Beauty is that which attracts the
mind or appeals to a particular penchant of the mind. That is love; love
is not just Rati the amorous attitude. There can be love between a child
and its mother, between friends, between a teacher and disciples and of
course love towards God. The beauty in Man is love and this love is what
distinguishes Man and makes him supreme in all creation. Hence, love is
beauty, that is, Sringara is truth and naturally it is considered to be
the king of the Rasas; not because it is seductive, passionate or amorous
love, though the general belief is so.
The common concept is that Sringara
Rasa refers to love between man and woman and its consequences. A much
deeper sense is actually conveyed by this term. The meaning of this term,
Sringara is beauty, Soundarya. That is why Sringara Lahari is also known
as soundarya Lahari.
Thus Sringara rasa can be created
by many different kinds of methods. 'Kuru Yadunandana' from 'Geetagovindam'
represents the Sambhoga Sringara. This can be depicted by the meeting between
the male and the female, their attitudes to love varying from shy to bold.
'Krishna nee begane baro' can be shown as Vatsalya, the bond between a
mother and child; or Bhakthi, the tie between a devotee and God. Amorous
interpretation of this would be inappropriate.
While exhibiting, acting or dancing
the basic idea of a theme, the study of various theories and literary allusions
help the performer to elaborate it properly and give the required strength
of mood and atmosphere for the audience, enabling it to get the most out
of it. Of course, there are various kinds of Sringara - Sambhoga Sringara,
Vipralambha Sringara etc., but these need independent treatment for themselves.
Rowdra can be expressed by violent
jumps, striking the floor forcefully with the feet. Anger is one of the
more easily communicable emotions. Audiences can easily identify this feeling.
To evoke such a feeling, the performer endulges in violent actions. Roudram
is characteristic of wicked characters, like Rakshasas, true, but it does
not mean that good characters should not show Roudram even for a moment.
Though their basic nature is not cruel, they can have a momentary fir of
Bad characters , on the other hand,
show their inherent quality of Roudram in their normal speech, action and
even in the manifestation of their love. When such a character is shown
the audience should immediately savour the taste of it, even by the figure,
costume and make-up.
The next important Rasa is Veera.
This quality of heroism is attributed only to great, benevolent and chivalrous
men. Enthusiasm and valour is in the natue of such heroes. When one thinks
of such a hero, one imagines a handsome valiant, beautifully attired, pleasing
to look at and on entry, he should give the impression of leadership and
heroism. The stature itself should create the Veera rasa. Otherwise, its
opposite will result, Hasya. The very gait itself can differentiate between
men, the heroes and fools.
Veera Rasa is generally associated
with Sringara, because a hero's basic qualities are love and good nature.
A veera, a hero that is, comes across a heroine and the ensuing relationship
between them gives room for various other bhavas and rasas. Thus Sringara
and Veera have been the dominant rasas in the most popular of tales from
our Puranas, History, Literature, Folk Tales and even real life. hence
these Rasas can be called the root of most creativity in all fine arts,
and more so in literature, music and dance. There are various shades of
heroes, Dhirodatta, Dhirodhhata, Dhiralalitha and Dhirashanta are some
of them, their names denoting the qualities predominant in them.
Beebhatsa rasa is employed only
in very brief stretches as no one likes to experience this rasa, disgust,
for very long, whether reading a book or seeing something on stage. There
is not much to describe in this rasa, except to say that it is creted when
things like vomit, bad ocour are properly depicted. A good artiste can
communicate this area easily and a bad one might create it inadvertently.
The other Rasas, Hasya, Karuna, Adbhuta and Bhaya are also sparingly
used in specific instances. It must be remembered that these are the lesser
There is a controversy whether this
Rasa is to be included in the list of Rasas at all. That apart, this rasa
has a great significance since it is here that every thing begins and ends.
This denotes a frame of mind, blissful, free from tension, content and
near salvation. This quality is personified by great sages like Buddha,
Sankaracharya etc., Reading or hearing about them elevates the human mind
to a higher realm of thought, of tranquil repose. Seeing such a saintly
character of simple attire and serene demeanour, naturally ccompanied by
a simple and elevating music, fills the audience with a feeling of purity
and piety. This can be noticed quite often in the auditorium, when such
a scene comes to pass in a drama, ballet, harikatha, musical discourse
or ven a vocal concert.
One way of showing this area of rasa
would be to show what it would be without it. A good example would be Thyagaraja's
'Santhamuleka Sowkhyamuledu'. It must be noted that to throw proper light
on Shantha, the elaboratic must be about what it would be without it.