In this section, I am providing general information - combination of a glossary, listing of great personalities, locations & geographical landmarks, history - in general any subject related to India. I have gathered the information from various sources - books, magazines, internet, word of mouth.

General information about India - N


National Anthem

Jana-gana-mana-adhinayaka, jaya he
Bharata-bhagya-vidhata.
Punjab-Sindh-Gujarat-Maratha
Dravida-Utkala-Banga
Vindhya-Himachala-Yamuna-Ganga
Uchchala-Jaladhi-taranga.
Tava shubha name jage,
Tava shubha asisa mage,
Gahe tava jaya gatha,
Jana-gana-mangala-dayaka jaya he
Bharata-bhagya-vidhata.
Jaya he, jaya he, jaya he,
Jaya jaya jaya, jaya he!

The above is the full version of the Anthem and its playing time is approximately 52 seconds.

Jana Gana Mana (Bengali: Jôno Gôno Mono), the national anthem of India Written in highly Sanskritized Bengali, is the first of five stanzas of a Brahmo hymn composed and scored by Nobel laureate Rabindranath Tagore. It was first sung at the Calcutta Session of the Indian National Congress,on 27 December 1911. Jana Gana Mana was officially adopted by the Constituent Assembly as the Indian national anthem on January 24, 1950. The music for the "current version" is said to be derived from a composition for the song by Ram Singh Thakur, although some dispute this.

A formal rendition of the national anthem takes about forty-eight to fifty-two seconds. A shortened version consisting of the first and last lines (and taking about 20 seconds to play) is also staged occasionally.

English Translation
O! Dispenser of India's destiny, thou art the ruler of the minds of all people
Thy name rouses the hearts of Punjab, Sindh, Gujarat, the Maratha country,
in the Dravida country, Utkala and Bengal;
It echoes in the hills of the Vindhyas and Himalayas,
it mingles in the rhapsodies of the pure waters of Yamuna and the Ganges.
They chant only thy name.
They seek only thy auspicious blessings.
They sing only the glory of thy victory.
The salvation of all people waits in thy hands,
O! Dispenser of India's destiny, thou art the ruler of the minds of all people
Victory to thee, Victory to thee, Victory to thee,
Victory, Victory, Victory, Victory to thee!.
Source - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jana_Gana_Mana
Visit http://india.gov.in/knowindia/national_anthem.php to listen to the audio
National Anthem Jana Gana Mana (Instrumental) by Hamsadhwani - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tF7A3H4YTw4


National Institute of Animal Welfare (NIAW)
at Ballabhgarh, Faridabad, Haryana has been established to impart training and education in animal welfare and veterinary science. The institute aims at creating an enabling environment for the fulfillment of statutory requirements under the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act, 1960.
Source: http://india.gov.in/sectors/environment/forest_policy.php



National Parks
Andaman Nicobar Islands
Wandur National Park - Estuarine Crocodiles, Coconut Crab

Arunachal Pradesh
Namdapha National Park - Leopard, Gaur, Himalayan Black Bear

Assam
Kaziranga National Park - Rhinos, Elephants, Tigers
Manas National Park - Assam Roofed Turtle, Golden Langur

Chhattisgarh
Indravati National Park - Tiger, Leopard, Blue Bull,

Gujarat
Gir National Park - Asiatic Lion
Marine National Park

Himachal Pradesh
Great Himalayan National Park
Pin Valley National Park - Himalayan Snowcock, Chukar

Jammu And Kashmir
Dachigam National Park - Himalayan Black Bears, Leopard
Hemis National Park - Snow Leopard
Kishtwar National Park - Himalayan Jungle Crow

Jharkhand
Hazaribagh National Park - Tigers, Wild Boar, Nilgai
Palamu National Park - Tigers, Dhole, Elephants

Karnataka
Bandipur National Park - Asian Elephants, Tiger
Bannerghatta National Park - Tiger, Lion
Nagarhole National Park - Elephant, Jackal, Tiger

Kerala
Eravikulam National Park - Nilgiri Tahr, Atlas Moth, Elephant
Periyar National Park - Nilgiri Langur, Flying Squirrel
Silent Valley National Park - Nilgiri Tahr, Niligiri Langur,Tiger

Madhya Pradesh
Bandhavgarh National Park - Tigers, Leopards, Bears
Kanha National Park - Tigers, Leopards, Elephant
Madhav National Park - Indian Gazelle, Nilgai, Sambar
Panna National Park - Tiger, Wolf, Chital, Sloth Bear
Pench National Park - Tiger, Leopard, Sloth Bear

Maharashtra
Navegaon National Park - Tiger, Panther, Bisons
Tadoba National Park - Tiger, Leopards, Sloth Bears

Meghalaya
Balphakram National Park - Barking Deer, Golden Cat
Nokrek National Park - Fishing Cat, Serow, Tiger.

Orissa
Chandaka Elephant Reserve - Elephant, Hital, Bear, Pea-Fowl
Nandan Kanan National Park - White Tiger, Asiatic Lion, Crocodiles
Simlipal National Park - Tiger, Leopard, Elephants

Rajasthan
Desert National Park - Great Indian Bustard, Harriers
Keoladeo National Park - Siberian Cranes, Ruddy Shelducks
Ranthambore National Park - Tigers, Leopards, Boars
Sariska National Park - Four-Horned Deer, Carecal, Leopard

Uttar Pradesh
Dudhwa National Park - Tiger, Rhinoceros

Uttaranchal
Corbett National Park - Tigers, Leopards, Elephants
Govind National Park - Black Bear, Leopard, Snow Cock
Nandadevi National Park - Tiger, Leopard
Rajaji National Park - Tigers, Leopards, Elephants,
Valley of Flowers National Park - Snow Leopard, Musk Deer, Red Fox

West Bengal
Sundarbans National Park - Royal Bengal Tiger; Fishing Cats.
List of National Parks with year of establishment
Related topic - Wildlife Sanctuaries
Source: http://www.indiawildliferesorts.com/national-parks/index.html



National Symbols

National Flag
The National Flag is a horizontal tricolour of deep saffron (kesaria) at the top, white in the middle and dark green at the bottom in equal proportion. The ratio of width of the flag to its length is two to three. In the centre of the white band is a navy-blue wheel which represents the chakra. Its design is that of the wheel which appears on the abacus of the Sarnath Lion Capital of Ashoka. Its diameter approximates to the width of the white band and it has 24 spokes. The design of the National Flag was adopted by the Constituent Assembly of India on 22 July 1947.

National Bird

The Indian peacock, Pavo cristatus.


National Flower

Lotus, Nelumbo Nucipera Gaertn




National Tree

The Banyan tree called the Indian fig tree, Ficus bengalensis
Photo: http://india.gov.in/knowindia/national_tree.php


National Fruit

Mango, Mangifera indica


State Emblem
The state emblem is an adaptation from the Sarnath Lion Capital of Ashoka. In the original, there are four lions, standing back to back, mounted on an abacus with a frieze carrying sculptures in high relief of an elephant, a galloping horse, a bull and a lion separated by intervening wheels over a bell-shaped lotus. Carved out of a single block of polished sandstone, the Capital is crowned by the Wheel of the Law (Dharma Chakra) .

In the state emblem, adopted by the Government of India on 26 January 1950, only three lions are visible, the fourth being hidden from view. The wheel appears in relief in the centre of the abacus with a bull on right and a horse on left and the outlines of other wheels on extreme right and left. The bell-shaped lotus has been omitted. The words Satyameva Jayate from Mundaka Upanishad , meaning 'Truth Alone Triumphs', are inscribed below the abacus in Devanagari script.
Source: http://india.gov.in/knowindia/state_emblem.php


National Calendar
The national calendar based on the Saka Era, with Chaitra as its first month and a normal year of 365 days was adopted from 22 March 1957 along with the Gregorian calendar for the following official purposes:
(i) Gazette of India,
(ii) news broadcast by All India Radio,
(iii) calendars issued by the Government of India and
(iv) Government communications addressed to the members of the public.
Dates of the national calendar have a permanent correspondence with dates of the Gregorian calendar, 1 Chaitra falling on 22 March normally and on 21 March in leap year.
Source: http://india.gov.in/knowindia/national_calendar.php


National Animal

Tiger, Panthera tigris
 


National Song
The song Vande Mataram, composed in Sanskrit by Bankimchandra Chatterji, was a source of inspiration to the people in their struggle for freedom. It has an equal status with Jana-gana-man a. The first political occasion when it was sung was the 1896 session of the Indian National Congress. The following is the text of its first stanza:

Vande Mataram!
Sujalam, suphalam, malayaja shitalam,
Shasyashyamalam, Mataram! (Vande Mataram!)
Shubhrajyotsna pulakitayaminim,
Phullakusumita drumadala shobhinim,
Suhasinim sumadhura bhashinim,
Sukhadam varadam, Mataram! (Vande Mataram!)

The English translation of the stanza rendered by Sri Aurobindo in prose:
I bow to thee, Mother,
richly-watered, richly-fruited, cool with the winds of the south,
dark with the crops of the harvests, The Mother!
Her nights rejoicing in the glory of the moonlight,
her lands clothed beautifully with her trees in flowering bloom,
sweet of laughter, sweet of speech,
The Mother, giver of boons, giver of bliss.
Source, audio : http://india.gov.in/knowindia/national_song.php

 





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